漁業必須做好迎戰氣候變遷的準備聯合國糧農組織新出爐的報告建議,漁業界與國家漁業機關必須做好迎戰氣候變遷對於全球漁業衝擊的準備功課。最新出版的世界漁業與水產養殖現況(The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture;SOFIA)表示,除了推廣現行的負責任作業漁法,管理計畫也應將因應氣候變遷策略納入考量。SOFIA作者Kevern Cochrane則認為,漁業在面臨氣候變遷議題時,總是無法拿出如書中所述明確、具建設性的彈性做法。所以需向漁民及漁業機關明確傳達,可效法現行減緩氣候變遷衝擊最好的做法,如採用FAO因應負責任漁業的行為準則(Code of Conduct)。強化脆弱的食物系統與群落氣候變遷正在改變海水與淡水物種的分佈區域。水產品因為較溫暖水域的物種被迫往南北極遷移,導致棲地大小與花蓮民宿生產力接連產生變化。嚴重衝擊生物成長周期、改變海水與淡水食物網等因素,會導致無法預期的後果。當務之急就是協助與強化漁業與水產養殖業賴以維生的生物群落(尤其是相對脆弱),對氣候變遷的應變能力。漁業作業碳足跡報告更進一步指出,漁業與水產養殖業在作業、運送、加工與儲藏水產品的過程中,每使用100萬公噸的燃料,平均排放約3 teragrams的二氧化碳;儘管其溫室氣體的排放率甚低,仍有可以改善的空間。漁撈能力過剩導致每船能捕獲的魚變少,與為搶食有限的資源,漁民不斷擴增漁船馬力,都能降低油耗率。所以Cochrane認為,只要漁業管理得法,就有望改善該產業的油耗率。水產養殖成為生產新主力 2006年全球漁業生產力創下14,360萬公噸(作業捕撈與水產養殖來源各佔 9,200萬與5,170萬公噸)買房子新高。人類使用其中的11,040萬公噸,其餘則用於家畜飼料、養殖魚粉等用途。47%提供人類食用的養殖業,現已成為生產力增加的主要來源;而作業捕獲的生產力已趨於平緩,也不太可能會有超過現今水準的機會。野生系群的現況報告指出,FAO監控商業用途海魚的系群現況發現,19%屬過度開發,8%瀕臨耗竭,1%則由耗竭逐漸復育中。約有52%處於或已瀕臨永續極限(生態所能承受的最高極限)的完全開發等級,並大多落在東北大西洋、西印度洋與西北太平洋等區域;20%的系群則屬中度開發或開發中等級。SOFIA認為,衝擊現今漁業的最大關鍵,無非是過多的船數與高效能作業技術所導致的漁撈能力過剩問題。(摘譯自Worldfishing,April 2009) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~World fisheries 買屋網must prepare for climate changeThe fishing industry and national fisheries authorities must do more to understand and prepare for the impacts that climate change will have on world fisheries, says a new FAO report published today.According to the latest edition of the UN agency's The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), existing responsible fishing practices need to be more widely implemented and current management plans should be expanded to include strategies for coping with climate change. "Best practices that are already on the books but not always implemented offer clear, established tools towards making fisheries 房屋買賣more resilient to climate change," said Kevern Cochrane, one of SOFIA's authors. "So the message to fishers and fisheries authorities is clear: get in line with current best practices, like those contained in FAO's Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, and you've already taken important strides towards mitigating the effects of climate change."Vulnerable food systems and communitiesClimate change is already modifying the distribution of both marine and freshwater species. Warmer-water species are being pushed towards the poles and experiencing changes in habitat size and productivity.And climate change is affecting the 訂做禮服seasonality of biological processes, altering marine and freshwater food webs, with unpredictable consequences for fish production.For communities who heavily rely on fisheries, any decreases in the local availability of fish or increases in the instability in their livelihoods will pose serious problems.“Many fisheries are being exploited at the top range of their productive capacity. When you look at the impacts that climate change might have on ocean ecosystems, that raises concerns as to how they'll hold up," said Cochrane.Urgent efforts are needed to help fishery and aquaculture dependent communities to strengthen their 系統傢俱resilience to climate change, especially those most vulnerable, he added.Fishing's carbon footprintFisheries and aquaculture make a minor but significant contribution to greenhouse gas emissions during fishing operations and transport, processing and storage of fish, according to today's report.The average ratio of fuel to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for capture fisheries is estimated at about 3 teragrams of CO2 per million tonnes of fuel used. "That could be improved. Good fisheries management can substantially improve fuel efficiency for the sector," Cochrane said. "Overcapacity and excess fishing capacity mean fewer fish 結婚西裝caught per vessel—that is, lower fuel efficiency—while competition for limited resources means fishers are always looking to increase engine power, which also lowers efficiency."Compared to actual fishing operations, emissions per kilogram of post-harvest aquatic products transported by air are quite high, SOFIA adds. Intercontinental airfreight emits 8.5 kg of CO2 per kilogram of fish transported. This is about 3.5 times that for sea freight and more than 90 times that from local transportation of fish where it is consumed within 400 kilometres of catch.New production figuresTotal world fisheries production reached a new high of 143.6 商務中心million tonnes in 2006 (92 million tonnes capture fisheries, 51.7 million tonnes aquaculture). Of that, 110.4 million tonnes was used for human consumption, with the remainder going to non-food uses (livestock feed, fishmeal for aquaculture).The production increases came from the aquaculture sector, which now accounts for 47 percent of all fish consumed by humans as food. Production in capture fisheries has levelled off and is not likely to increase beyond current levels.Status of wild stocksNineteen percent of the major commercial marine fish stocks monitored by FAO are overexploited, 8 percent are depleted, and 1 percent is ranked as 租屋recovering from depletion, today's report indicates.Around half (52%) rank as fully exploited and are producing catches that are at or close to their maximum sustainable limits.Twenty percent of stocks fall into the moderately exploited or underexploited category.Areas with the highest proportions of fully-exploited stocks are the Northeast Atlantic, the Western Indian Ocean and the Northwest Pacific.SOFIA identifies overcapacity—a combination of too many boats and highly effective fishing technologies— as a key problem affecting fisheries today.


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